A different vocabulary, a different alphabet

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“In Siberia, a few years ago, a couple of diamond pipes were located after diamonds were discovered in glacial drift,” Anita told me. I said, “Possibly some Russian geologists could be helpful here.” Looking out across the water of Lake James at a line of morainal hills, she chose to ignore the suggestion. The hills screened the outwash plain beyond. After some moments, she said, “Rocks remember. They may not be able to tell you exactly where in Canada to look for a diamond pipe, but when you have diamonds in this drift you’d better believe it is telling you that diamond pipes are there. Rocks are the record of events that took place at the time they formed. They are books. They have a different vocabulary, a different alphabet, but you learn how to flexplek huren apeldoorn read them. Igneous rocks tell you the temperature at which they changed from the molten to the solid state, and they tell you the date when that happened, and hence they give you a picture of the earth at that time, whether they formed three thousand million years ago or flowed out of the ground yesterday. In sedimentary rock, the colors, the grain sizes, the ripples, the crossbedding give you clues to the energy of the environment of deposition-for example, the force and direction and nature of the rivers that laid down the sediments. Tracks and trails left by organisms-and hard parts of their bodies, and flora in the rocktell whether the material came together in the ocean or on the continent, and possibly the depth and temperature of the water, and the temperature on the land. Metamorphic rocks have been heated, compressed, and recrystallized. Their mineral composition tells you if they were originally igneous or sedimentary. Then they tell you flexplek huren breda what happened later on. They tell you the temperatures when they changed. At one point, I wanted to major in history. My teachers steered me into science, but I really majored in history. I grew up in topography like this, believe it or not. Looking at these lakes and hills, you’d never think of Brooklyn. For that matter, you’d never think of Indiana. I didn’t know what bedrock meant. I remember how amazed I was to discover, in learning to read rocks, how much history there was. All the glacial stuff arrived just yesterday and is sitting on the surface. Most of Brooklyn is a pitted outwash plain. Brooklyn means broken land.”

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