The first horses on earth

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These things were very real, very practical. If you’re in bedrock, caliche, or gumbo, the going is hard. Caliche is lime precipitate at the water table-you learn some geology the hard way. There was nothing else zakelijke energie vergelijken to be interested in. Everything depended on geology. Any damn fool could see that the vegetation was directly responsive to the bedrock. Hence birds and wildlife were responsive to it. We were responsive to it. In winter, our life was governed by where the wind blew, where snow accumulated. We could see that these natural phenomena were not random-that they were controlled, that there was a system. The processes of erosion and deposition were things we grew up with. An insulated society does not see how important terrain is to someone who has to understand it in order to live with it. Much of it meant life or death for the animals, and therefore survival for us. If there was one thing we learned, it was that you don’t fight nature. You live with it. And you make the accommodations-because nature does not accommodate.” In the driest months, he saw mud cracks so firm a horse could step on them without breaking their polygonal form. When he saw the same patterns in rock, he had no difficulty discerning that the zakelijke energie rock had once been mud and that the cracks within it were the preserved summer of a former world. In the Chalk Hills (multicolored badlands), getting down from his mount, he
found the tiny jaws and small black teeth of what he eventually learned were Eocene horses-the first horses on earth, three hands tall. Among the figures that appeared on the horizon and slowly approached the ranch-and sometimes stayed indefinitely-were geologists. The first he met were from the United States Geological Survey. Others worked for oil companies. The oilmen were well dressed and had shiny boots that caught his eye. Some of these people were famous in the science-for example, Charles T. Lupton, a structural geologist who had located the wildcats of the Cat Creek Anticline and discovered the oil of Montana. He did something like it in the Bighorn Basin. David particularly remembers him on two counts: first, that he “talked about the outside world,” and, second, that he came in off the range with fragments of huge ammonites-index fossils of the late Cretaceous-and demonstrated by extrapolation that these spiral cephalopods had approached the size of wagon wheels. Lupton’s obituary in the Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists says, “Always he had a word to say to the children of his friends.”

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